In his seminal essay of 1985, “Our Homeland, the Text”, George Steiner wrote: “The man or woman at home in the text is, by definition, a conscientious objector: to the vulgar mystique of the flag and the anthem, to the sleep of reason which proclaims „my country, right or wrong.‟” The aim of this essay is to explore, from the perspective opened by Steiner‟s lines, Norman Manea‟s sense of belonging, his attachment to the language-as-homeland, and his understanding of exile as a defining condition of the modern writer.
Keywords: homeland, belonging, exile, displacement, subversiveness, e(a)sthetics.
Il presente lavoro di ricerca terminologica ha come punto di partenza il soggiorno formativo svolto a ottobre 2011 presso la Direzione Generale della Traduzione (DGT) di Bruxelles.
Il focus del progetto riguarda la revisione e l‟aggiornamento di parte del database terminologico online IATE: nello specifico, ci siamo occupate di un corpus composto da duecentotredici termini in inglese relativi all‟ambito del bilancio. Tale corpus, suddiviso in due parti, includeva nella sezione “ADD” termini privi di equivalenti in lingua italiana e nella sezione “UPDATE” termini provvisti di equivalente in italiano. Nel primo caso abbiamo dovuto reperire gli equivalenti termini italiani mentre nel secondo caso abbiamo aggiornato gli equivalenti già inseriti ove necessario, oltre a verificare l‟esattezza e l‟esaustività dei riferimenti presenti.
Il nostro lavoro si articola in più parti: nella prima descriviamo brevemente l‟esperienza e i risultati, nella seconda approfondiamo il soggiorno formativo presso la DGT a partire dai primi contatti con Italo Rubino, Capo del dipartimento linguistico italiano, e con la Dott.ssa Maria Elena Ponzo della DGT sede di Lussemburgo. La terza parte presenta una panoramica del dominio di riferimento prendendo in considerazione gli aspetti teorici relativi alle cosiddette lingue speciali con particolare riferimento al linguaggio dell‟economia e introducendo informazioni sulla tipologia testuale da cui sono estratti i termini. La quarta parte riguarda in concreto lo sviluppo del progetto, a partire da un confronto tra diverse tipologie di schede terminologiche: quella IATE e quella MultiTerm, per poi proseguire con l‟analisi delle risorse utilizzate e dei motivi che ci hanno portato ad aggiornare e revisionare le schede affidateci; infine prendiamo in esame i fruitori di IATE introducendo la figura dei “validatori”.
Nella quinta parte esaminiamo nello specifico le difficoltà di ordine sia tecnico sia terminologico incontrate durante il lavoro di manutenzione delle schede proponendo le nostre soluzioni.
La sesta parte è relativa a un questionario socioterminologico sottoposto ai traduttori delle Unità 01 e 02 della DGT (sede di Bruxelles), illustrandolo nella struttura e presentandone i risultati ottenuti.
L‟ultima parte raccoglie le conclusioni generali di tutto il progetto.
Keywords: IATE, Terminologia, Equivalenza interlinguistica, Lingue speciali, Aggiornamento e Revisione terminologica.
Scenographer, architect, gastrosopher, Sergiu Singer settled in Germany in the sixties. He returned after 1990, in constant travels to Bucharest, the city of some beautiful memories. He wrote about the city and took photos of the old buildings, publishing the books “Lavandă şi usturoi” [Lavender and Garlic] and “Pioneze şi hârtie albastră” [Push Pins and Blue Paper]. He travelled back to a city that once was his home and saw the world here through the eyes of his present, as well as through the eyes of his past. The distance between his memories and what he rediscovered is huge. And, though, something survived from the older day city. Hence, the travel was not only as a journey in space, but also a journey in time, to a world that no longer existed and that he rebuilt from cracks. Architectural, culinary cracks, commonplace or special memories.
Keywords: Sergiu Singer, architecture, Bucharest, Germany, collage.
The difficulties of defining European identity have always been obvious, given the dimension of conflict that has always shaped interaction between the nations of the continent. Under these terms, it seems that exile of the Europeans on another continent (which is, in most cases, the American one, as privileged place of rebuilding identities) acts as a contrasting substance for revealing the true features of the individual coming from the Old World. Each of the narratives/theories on American culture unfolds, in fact, the European narrator or theorist‟s background, identity and difference. In such cases, we are always dealing with a dichotomy, the one that separates Western European perspectives from Eastern European ones. This paper aims to discuss some examples of Romanian exiled writers in America and evaluate the impact of displacement (or re-placement) in their memoirs, journals or theories. The main personalities chosen for this analysis are Matei Călinescu and Virgil Nemoianu, their work embodying a distance from European culture, as well as a struggle to preserve European identity and a certain nostalgic discourse. If exile is a variable that may legitimately trigger a re-evaluation of the relation between a theorist‟s biography and work, this paper will attempt to outline possible directions of such an endeavour.
Keywords: literary theory, exile, criticism, identity, rewriting, displacement, replacement.
In this paper, we analyze the use of noun phrases as adjuncts, without adpositional marking. We first compare languages with and without a case system (with: Old French, Romanian, German, Russian, Polish and Finnish; without: Modern French, Italian, English, Bulgarian). We show that the use of these nominal adjuncts (NAs) is highly constrained, and that semantics in particular play an important role: NAs appear frequently with temporal meanings, in all of these languages; whereas those with spatial meanings seem more constrained, less frequent and mostly appear in languages that have a case system.
We then go on to analyze in greater detail the conditions of use of these NAs, with a corpus study on Old French, which helps us confirm the hypothesis that semantics play a major role, more than other constraints which we take the trouble to evaluate: word order, presence of articles and modifiers, context.
Keywords: nominal adjunct, adpositional adjunct, case marking, space, time, manner.
Migrant writers have long been associated, in the history of the 20th C. Central-East European literatures, with the tropes of exile and Diaspora. After the political overturn of 1989, the intellectuals willing to leave behind their “developing” native countries had to face a different set of hardships and challenges, mostly related to work, social integration and resettlement. Return migration has become frequent not only among scholars, but among people of all walks of life. The mirage of the “developed world” faded away, disenchantment took its place. Drawing on their own failed experiences with migration, Radu Pavel Gheo (2003) and Adrian Schiop (2009) imagine different types of “misfits” who, for some reasons, decide to come back home. But the narrators propounded by the two writings have different senses of belonging. Using and playing on a phrase coined by Peter L. Berger, one of them is a homebound, while the other is a homeless mind.
Keywords: return migration, home, homeless mind, Radu Pavel Gheo, Adrian Schiop.
La saillance est un concept qui caractérise certains constituants ayant des propriétés (lexicales, sémantiques, morphosyntaxiques et / ou prosodiques) spécifiques dont le rôle premier est de les faire émerger sur le fond du contexte linguistique. La première partie de cet article (publiée dans le numéro précédent) traite de trois phénomènes de saillance se situant à l‟interface de la sémantique et de la morphosyntaxe, en roumain : (i) le marquage différentiel de l‟objet direct et (ii) du complément d‟agent, (iii) l‟alternance entre le génitif morphologique et les groupes prépositionnels en de. La seconde partie de cet article (dans le présent numéro) traite de deux phénomènes relevant de l‟organisation discursive et de la structure informationnelle de la phrase : (iv) les pronoms personnels et de politesse, (v) les constructions à thématisation dite forte et à rhématisation.
Mots-clés: saillance, mise en relief, pronoms (personnels, de politesse), thématisation, rhématisation.
La caractéristique de l‟adverbe roumain de manière est son homonymie avec la forme de l‟adjectif (au masculin/neutre singulier). Les adverbes dérivés (en -eşte, comme câineşte „comme un chien‟, creştineşte „chrétiennement‟, et en -iş et -âş, comme chiorâş litt. „aveuglement‟, furiş litt. „furtivement‟, lupiş „comme un loup‟) ne sont pas très nombreux et ont une fréquence assez réduite. Dans cet article, l‟auteur examine les adverbes en -iş et -âş, qui ont comme base de la dérivation principalement des noms, puis des verbes et, en dernier lieu, des adverbes, des adjectifs, etc. Dans la première partie, on dresse la liste des unités adverbiales, en ajoutant des informations utiles à leur analyse (le sens, l‟attestation, l‟étymon, les locutions dans lesquelles elles entrent etc.). La deuxième partie contient des observations concernant le sens de ces adverbes, la diachronie et la circulation dans la langue; une attention particulière est portée sur le statut morpho-lexical des unités enregistrées dans les dictionnaires avec des valeurs adverbiale et nominale à la fois.
Mots-clés: adverbe dérivé; les suffixes -iş et -âş; locatif; relation adverbe − nom; groupe prépositionnel.
Starting from the ostentatious presence of the SMS to teenagers, my interest was to identify the values of its appropriation process and to draw the trajectory of SMS within teenage culture. My hypothesis is that the SMS develops two trajectories of use which interpenetrate: individual line and collective line, the last one becoming cultural logic. The relation between the object of consumption and the individual is a complex one, described by specific values of use and regulated by cultural practices. In this article, I will present the ways that the intimacy is being incorporated and ex-corporated through the teenage expressivity. Through comparative field between Romania and Belgium, I have realized participative observation in places that are frequented by teenagers, interviews for both spaces and I have collected more than 300 text messages.
Keywords: communication, consumption, incorporation, intimacy, link-up, implicit rules.
Between june 1970 and december 1971, the Romanian cultural review „România Literară” has published a series of interviews with „common readers” (workers from factories or power stations, engineers, librarians etc.) in order to demonstrate not only that Romanians were well-read people, but also that the communist rulers had reached their aim of creating a New Man, one that could challenge the so-called Homo Universalis of the Renaissance.
Analysed nowadays, these pages show how absurd this homo legens invented by communist propaganda actually was. And they also prove how dangerous reading was considered, since the officials were continously searching ways of controlling it and monitoring its practices.
The fake portrait of the Romanian common reader as a sort of champion or hero of the public sphere acquires several distinct significances when related to the political tensions of the ‟70s (it is the year of V. I Lenin centenary, but also the year preceding the “theses” from July 1971, when Ceauşescu‟s regime would turn to the Jdanov pattern of the socialist realism). In other words, this was the moment of truth, when all the small liberties granted to the intellectuals in the mid-60‟s, would prove nothing else but castles of playing cards, maneuvers skillfully dissimulated with the aim of achieving complete power. Even if this yaw of Ceauşescu‟s dictatorship to an epigonic Stalinism, towards the bridge of the hilarious, did not have consequences similar to those in the 50‟s, yet the Romanian culture has been once more detoured from its normal evolution.
Keywords: reading, ideology, totalitarianism, print culture, propaganda, national-communism, interview, writers, Ceauşescu, banned and censored books, mass culture, homo legens, homo fictus, library, reader, oppression, persuasion, fragmentary mentality, dictatorship, editions, publishing houses, memory.
Dans la dernière décennie communiste, la principale confrontation de l'espace littéraire roumain est le débat entre les traditionalistes protochrones et les esthètes qui essaient de conserver, en dépit du contrôle idéologique de plus en plus sévère, les valeurs spécifiques de la littérature et la croyance dans l'art pour l'art. Le sujet de l'article porte sur un aspect particulier de cette confrontation, plus ou moins ouverte : l'usage et les enjeux du terme autonomie littéraire, qui est affiché avec tout son contenu du désintéressement dans les deux discours en lutte.
Mots-clés : autonomie littéraire, communisme roumain, protochronisme, champ littéraire, presse culturelle idéologique, enquête littéraire.